Week of September 29, 2008
Congressional Probe Urged Of Enviro Groups lobbying Interior Department Agency
Washington, D.C. -- Potential illegal coordination between U.S. Interior Department officials and several national environmental groups, currently being investigated by the Interior Inspector General, should also be investigated by Congressional oversight committees, according to Americans for American Energy.
Americans for American Energy on September 24, asked U.S. Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV), Chair of the House Resource Committee, and U.S. Senator Jeff Bingaman (D-NM), Chair of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, to convene oversight hearings on the matter.
News of the IG investigation was unveiled late last week by U.S. Rep. Rob Bishop (R-UT), ranking Member on the U.S. House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Parks and Public Lands, who said that he was informed of the investigation involving the Wilderness Society, National Wildlife Federation and possible improper contacts with the National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) on September 18.
Bishop indicated that e-mails and other documents collected b the Inspector General’s office of the U.S. Interior Department show extensive coordination between environmental lobbyists and NLCS top officials.
These activities appear to include coordination of lobbying, agency requests for budget language from environmental lobbyists, setting up NLCS events, review of official memorandums, and other potentially illegal exchanges, Bishop said.
The Interior IG is also collecting and reviewing travel documents as part of the investigation, the Congressman added. “The Inspector General needs to quickly determine how far this goes, but the Congressional oversight process must be brought into play as well,” said Greg Schnacke, President and CEO of Americans for American Energy, a non-profit grassroots energy education organization based in Denver, Colorado. “The Wilderness Society and the National Wildlife Federation spend millions of dollars pursuing an anti-American energy political agenda. The question we have is how far does this extend and does is it more extensive than simply the NLCS?”
AAE also called on Congress to shelve action on Omnibus Public Land Management Act (S. 3213), and in particular the portion of the bill directly affecting the NLCS, the “National Landscape Conservation System Act” (S. 1139).
"This investigation calls into question any action that might be taken this year on S. 3213, particularly the inclusion of the National Landscape Conservation System Act (S. 1139), until this situation is concluded. The cloud hanging over the NCLS alone should disqualify any consideration of this legislation this year. The allegations of collusion between the national environmental groups lobbying hard for this bill and the staff of the Interior agency that would be the subject of the legislation are enough under any reasonable assessment to shelve this legislation immediately until justice takes its course,” Schnacke stated in his letter to Rahall and Bingaman.
Published reports indicate that NLCS officials met regularly with environmental groups, often at the Wilderness Society’s Washington, D.C. offices to coordinate federal lobbying strategy and messaging. Federal law generally prohibits federal employees from using appropriated funds or their official positions to lobby Congress.
"It is the job of the Congress to provide oversight and investigate whenever there are such allegations of misconduct and misuse of taxpayer dollars," Schnacke said. "If the committees refuse to conduct such oversight, it will be sending a message to the American people that it intends to turn a blind eye to such activities."
“You can’t tell me this is an isolated incident,” added Schnacke. “The political agenda of the NWF and the Wilderness Society is too broad and touches more in the Interior Department than just the NLCS. I am sure the leadership at Interior will also be very interested whether other employees in other agencies may be a little too cozy with the Wilderness Society and the National Wildlife Federation.”
“AAE encourages the IG to get to the bottom of this immediately, and the U.S. House and Senate to investigate this as well. These investigations should begin prior to this election, given that some of these individuals may be planning to get jobs and important policy positions in the new Administration,” said Schnacke.
But House Democrats to Let Ban on Drilling Expire
Washington, D.C.—The House of Representatives on September 16 passed an energy bill to change the federal rules on oil and gas exploration off of the nation’s coastline. Pressured all summer by increasing voter anger over high energy prices, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi presented a bill as a compromise between pro-and anti-drilling forces. The content of the bill, however, delivers only a tiny increase in domestic energy production while dramatically expanding other restrictions.
The good news according to the Washington Post is Congressional Democrats bowed to political pressure and agreed to let the ban on offshore oil drilling expire, a decision that would allow exploration just three miles off the Atlantic and Pacific coastlines unless the next president reinstates an executive branch order that prohibits drilling.
The most ardent drilling opponents, who contend that exploration of the outer continental shelf puts oceans at risk without producing short-term relief from gasoline prices, said there is still time for the next president and future Congresses to work out a new compromise before oil rigs are erected within sight of the nation's coasts.
Federal studies have shown more than 85 % of known offshore oil reserves reside within the 50-mile zone that would remain under a moratorium. Drilling in the eastern Gulf of Mexico will remain prohibited within 125 miles of the shore under a separate provision in the 2006 energy bill.
The House plan would not allow any sharing of royalties with the states, which would discourage states from approving oil exploration and production 50 to 100 miles from their coasts.
Also, rather than returning royalty money to energy consumers, the House plan would give the money to the renewable power industry to subsidize research.
The Pelosi bill would:
► Still ban drilling between three miles and 50 miles offshore
► Permanently ban access to about 97 % of the undersea oil lying within 50 miles of the California coast
► Continue the ban on energy production in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico
► Impose a brand-new ban on oil and gas leases in Alaska's coastal waters out to 50 miles
► Not allow states that approve new leases beyond 50 miles to share royalties with the federal government, thus stripping any financial incentive for states to stand up to environmental pressure groups, who will continue to agitate against any new oil and gas operations offshore.
Although the bill passed the House, it still faces challenges in the Senate. The question of cutting states in on the potential $2.6 trillion in revenue emerged as a major point of contention. Rep. Gene Green (D-Texas) one of the Democrats shepherding the bill through the House, said he expects the upper chamber to cut the states in on the $2.6 trillion windfall in royalties.
The bill would also end a congressional moratorium blocking the Department of Interior from starting a leasing program for oil shale in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming, giving those state governments the right to decide whether to authorize a leasing agreement.
Oil shale is rock laced with organic material that turns into oil under intense heat. Advocates say there could be 1.8 trillion barrels of oil in the shale formations of the three states.
President Bush’s historic amendment maintains fishing in marine protected areas
Alexandria, VA – On September 26, President George W. Bush signed an amendment to the 1995 Executive Order on recreational fishing. This historic amendment ensures that federal agencies must maintain recreational fishing on federal lands and waters, including marine protected areas. Once implemented, this policy will provide access to places where men, women and children can enjoy fishing now and in the future. The Executive Order revises Executive Order 12962 signed in 1995 by President Bill Clinton.
President Bush’s amendment recognizes the marine and freshwater conservation impact of recreational anglers by allowing responsible recreational fishing and boating in marine protected areas and federal lands.
“The President’s action established a legacy for recreational fishing by securing access to fishing and boating, the lifeblood of the American model of fisheries management and conservation,” said ASA Vice President Gordon Robertson. “Every time American anglers buy fishing licenses or sportfishing equipment, an investment is made in fishing’s future. This highly successful user-pay system for fishery management depends on access to the resource.”
An August 25 Executive Memo signed by President Bush set the stage for today’s Executive Order. The memo directed the Secretaries of Defense, Interior and Commerce and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality to sustain access to recreational fishing as part of their study of potential marine protected areas (MPA) in the central Pacific Ocean. ASA supported the president’s directive and his decision not to include the Gulf of Mexico and marine areas of the southeast United States as part of that MPA study.
Weather Conditions: Sunny skies and unseasonably warm temperatures were the norm across the Great Lakes basin this week. Many locations recorded high temperatures in the 80s, which were a good 10 degrees above normal. Nice weather is expected to continue into the weekend, with only a slight chance of showers on Saturday. Cooler temperatures will set in for next week.
Lake Level Conditions
All of the Great Lakes are above their levels of a year ago. Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron are 11 and 10 inches, respectively, higher than they were a year ago. The levels of Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario range from 3 to 9 inches above what they were at this time last year. All of the Great Lakes are in their periods of seasonal decline. Lakes Superior and Michigan-Huron are predicted to drop 2 inches over the next 30 days, while Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario are projected to fall 5 to 7 inches. Lakes Superior, Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario are predicted to remain above their levels of a year ago over the next several months, while Lake Erie is projected to remain around last year's level.
Current Outflows/Channel Conditions
In August, outflow through the St. Mary's River was slightly
above average, while outflows through the St. Clair, Detroit, and Niagara Rivers were below average. The outflow from the St. Lawrence River was above average.
Users of the Great Lakes, connecting channels and St. Lawrence River should keep informed of current conditions before undertaking any activities that could be affected by changing water levels. Mariners should utilize navigation charts and refer to current water level readings.
ST. PAUL, MN (AP) — The state pollution control agency on September approved strict standards for ships that discharge ballast water into Lake Superior, hoping they will cut down on the spread of harmful invasive species. The new regulations are the toughest on the Great Lakes and among the strongest in the nation demanding ships’ crews take action so invasive species are less likely to hitchhike in ballast tanks.
In approving the rules 6-0, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency's governing board expressed hope that the action will lead other states and the federal government to follow suit. Unlike federal proposals pending in Congress, the new permit process will cover both oceangoing vessels and ships that stay within the Great Lakes. Congress has several ballast regulation plans in play, but so far none have passed into law. The federal Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a ballast regulation that requires no treatment of water released.
For now, ships will be required to follow practices set forth by the U.S. Coast Guard to reduce the risk of nonnative species from entering or spreading from lake to lake. And by 2016, ships will be required to treat their ballast water before dumping it into Minnesota waters.
The regulations require owners and operators of all ships longer than 150' that carry ballast to immediately apply for permits, begin keeping track of and reporting all ballast water discharges, and figure out a plan to eliminate the threat of invasive species being moved from distant ports into Duluth, Two Harbors and Silver Bay.
"This helps move in the direction to ensure that Lake Superior is protected while also allowing for a robust shipping economy," MPCA Commissioner Brad Moore said.
The transfer of fish, mussels and other marine life happens when oceangoing ships scoop up ballast water in foreign ports — complete with living organisms — and then dump the ballast when they take on cargo in Great Lakes ports. A single ship may need millions of gallons of water as ballast to keep it balanced before it takes on cargo. Of the 180 foreign species in the Great Lakes, scientists say about half probably got here by riding in ships’ ballast tanks. Some of those species, such as quagga mussels, cost millions of dollars to control and threaten native ecosystems. One species, the VHS virus, is killing large numbers of fish.
A University of Notre Dame study released in July concluded that invasive Great Lakes species cost the regional economy at least $200 million a year.
The MPCA's standards, which could affect more than 300 vessels, have come while federal legislation to regulate ballast water awaits congressional approval. "There's a real absence of federal leadership here," Moore said. "I think they'll pay attention" to what Minnesota has done.
Michigan has had ballast regulations in place for a couple of years, but their rules apply only to oceangoing vessels. The current legislation being discussed in Congress would also exempt lakes-only vessels. Advocates of Minnesota's
The dwindling daylight hours as fall approaches increase a driver's chance of hitting a deer for two simple reasons: deer are more active at night and darkness at an earlier hour means more vehicles on the road when visibility is poor. For those reasons, drivers need to be especially wary of deer in the coming weeks.
Nearly 50 of all accidents involving white-tailed deer occur between October and December, according to Chad Stewart, deer research biologist at the DNR. The most basic reason is the increase in deer activity.
With their breeding season approaching, deer become more active in the fall. This activity often leads them to encounter roads more frequently, increasing the opportunity for a collision. Factors such as deer density, vehicle density, surrounding habitat, speed limits, and time of day are other contributors to accident frequency.
"With the number of deer and the number of vehicles out there, deer-vehicle accidents will happen," Stewart said. "The best we can do is to take measures to keep them to a minimum.
The best method to reduce your risk of hitting a deer is to practice defensive driving. Remembering the following information will help reduce your chances of becoming a deer-vehicle collision statistic:
• Fall is the most common season to strike a deer.
• Deer are most active between sunset and sunrise.
• Deer often travel in groups, so if you see one, another is likely nearby.
• Drive especially carefully in areas where you have seen deer before.
• Use high beams when possible; scan for deer’s
illuminated eyes or dark silhouettes along the side of the road.
• If you see a deer, slow your speed drastically, even if it is far away.
• Exercise extreme caution along woodlot edges, at hills, or blind turns.
• Never swerve to avoid missing a deer; most serious crashes occur when drivers try to miss a deer but hit something else.
Drivers should pay attention to traffic signs warning of deer crossings, which they may be tempted to ignore, and may want to steer clear of gimmicks that claim to offer protection. "Deer crossing signs have proven effective, but motorists tend to get acclimated to such signs, and their efficiency can be reduced over time," Stewart said.
Stewart said that even when practicing safe driving, sometimes hitting a deer is inevitable. Even if that happens, one thing does not change--caution is still the best approach. "If you hit a deer, remain calm," he said. "Do not approach the deer unless you are sure it has expired. Despite the gentle nature of deer, their hooves are sharp and powerful, and can be extremely dangerous." Stewart said that, like cars and people, deer can be found anywhere, so drivers should be on the lookout everywhere.
"Whether you’re driving through a state or national forest, your developed neighborhood, or inside the city limits of Indianapolis, keep your eye out," he said. "Though a deer-vehicle accident can occur at any time of the day during any season, your chances of striking a deer are greatest at low-light conditions between October and December. "Take additional caution during these times, lower your speed, and be alert."
SPRINGFIELD, Ill-- The ISRA is urging state hunters, sportsmen and gun owners to vote "NO" this November on a ballot initiative to hold a state constitutional convention. The ISRA believes that holding a constitutional convention would open the door to significant changes in the state constitution and thus imperil the rights of law-abiding gun owners.
"The delegate count in a constitutional convention would certainly be stacked in Chicago's favor," commented ISRA Executive Director, Richard Pearson. "Consequently, Mayor
Daley would have carte blanche to craft the Illinois Constitution
to his liking. Daley has said in the past that, if it were up to him, nobody would be allowed to own a gun. You can bet that if Daley is given the opportunity to meddle with the state constitution, he would seek that end."
"We understand that a lot of law-abiding gun owners feel that a constitutional convention would provide an opportunity to correct deficiencies in Section 22," continued Pearson. "Under ideal circumstances, that opportunity would exist. However, as long as the Chicago Machine is in charge of the process, that just isn't going to happen."
Glen and Manistique Lakes will close briefly
Glen Lake Boating Access Site Will Experience Temporary Closure for Dredging Oct. 1-8. The Michigan DNR y announced that the boat launch for Little Glen Lake, which services both Little and Big Glen Lakes, will experience periods of temporary closure from Oct. 1-8 while the launch area is being dredged.
Approximately 3,000 cubic yds of material will be removed from the launch area and placed into an adjacent sediment pond. During this period, the site is expected to remain open for launching and retrieving on an intermittent basis.
Manistique Lake Boating Access Site Closing Temporarily Oct. 6-27. The Northside Boat Access Site on the north shore of Big Manistique Lake in the Upper Peninsula will be closed temporarily for dredging and boat ramp repair beginning Monday, Oct. 6. The project consists of mechanically dredging a turning basin and channel to improve boater safety and maneuverability out to deep water. The concrete boat launch ramp will also be extended as part of this project. Dredging and repairs are scheduled to be completed by Oct. 27.
Until repairs are complete, boaters are encouraged to use Cooks Bay, County Line or Curtis boat access sites, also located on Big Manistique Lake.
With the advent of the fall hunting seasons, now is the time for hunters to sight in bows, rifles and shotguns at one of the DNR staff-operated shooting ranges.
The DNR oversees six shooting ranges in southern Michigan, including the Rose Lake Shooting Range in Bath (Clinton County); Sharonville Shooting Range in Grass Lake (Jackson County); Island Lake Shooting Range in Brighton (Livingston County); Ortonville Shooting Range in Ortonville (Lapeer County); Bald Mountain Shooting Range in Lake Orion (Oakland County) and Pontiac Lake Shooting Range in Waterford (Oakland County). An archery range is not available at Island Lake or Ortonville.
During October, the ranges are open six days a week, closed Tuesdays. From Nov. 1-15, the ranges are open daily. Hours at the Bald Mountain, Pontiac Lake and Ortonville ranges are 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., and 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the Rose Lake and Sharonville ranges.
Range fees at Bald Mountain, Pontiac Lake and Ortonville are
$4 per day for each shooter age 16 and older. Children under 16 are free. Rose Lake and Sharonville have no fee. The Island Lake Shooting Range is operated under contact by Michigan Shooting Centers, LCC. Please contact Island Lake for hours and fees at 248-437-2784.
For more info:
- Bald Mountain--248-693-0567
- Island Lake--248-437-2784
- Pontiac Lake--248-666-5406
- Rose Lake--517-641-7801
Information about the DNR shooting ranges, and other public and private shooting ranges, can be found on the DNR Web site at www.michigan.gov/dnr under Law Enforcement, and then click on Shooting Ranges on the menu on the left side of the page. Shooters are reminded to bring eye and ear protection and approved paper targets with either a bull’s eye pattern or a depiction of legal game. Shooters under age 16 must be supervised by an adult.
Fall stocking proceeds on schedule
COLUMBUS - Castalia and London state fish hatcheries are free of VHS, according to the Ohio DNR.
Muskies from Clear Fork Reservoir sampled during routine egg collection in late April of this year tested positive for the virus in tests completed by the USFWS June 2. No fish kill was associated with the presence of the virus at Clear Fork.
Prior to this being known, three routine but significant events had occurred:
1. Eggs that had been collected from the reservoir were taken to the London State Fish Hatchery for muskie rearing and stocking;
2. Rainbow trout at London were transferred to the Castalia Fish Hatchery to grow out for the state's fall trout stocking effort; and
3. Surplus muskie fry from the London Hatchery were stocked at Alum Creek Lake.
On June 2, the Division was notified of the potential problem. It immediately contacted the Ohio Department of Agriculture
(ODA), which has authority for fish health in the state,
regarding the VHS positive results and the activity related to Clear Fork that had occurred at the hatcheries. The ODA placed the Castalia and London hatcheries under quarantine until three consecutive negative tests for VHS could be confirmed for each location.
Also in response to the virus' presence, the Division and the USFWS sampled six locations from Clear Fork Reservoir downstream to the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers. All test results were negative for VHS. Testing for the virus at the London and Castalia hatcheries has been completed. On September 19, London State Hatchery was cleared and the Castalia Fish Hatchery had its quarantine lifted September 22.
With these clearances, fall stocking of muskellunge and rainbow trout will proceed as scheduled. Twenty-six Ohio lakes will be stocked with 25,000 catchable rainbow trout throughout October. Advanced muskie fingerlings reared from the eggs taken earlier this year from the Clear Fork Reservoir were stocked in Clear Fork September 23 and in Alum Creek Lake on September 24.
Photos of kids exploring the outdoors sought for photo contest
COLUMBUS, OH - Every weekend this fall, state parks around Ohio are hosting a variety of family oriented special events including fall festivals, Halloween campouts, nature hikes, wagon rides, and heritage celebrations. Most are open to the public and free of charge, providing great opportunities for getting kids outdoors, and promoting an active family lifestyle, according to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
Parents, grandparents and guardians are encouraged to plan fall family outings to their local state parks to enjoy these events. In addition to scheduled activities, most Ohio State Parks also offer lake access for fishing, trails for hiking, and playgrounds in picnic areas and campgrounds.
While visiting parks and attending park events, parents are encouraged to bring a camera and snap photos of their youngsters for the Kids Exploring the Outdoors photo contest. Entries for the contest are accepted until November 5.
To be eligible, photos must have been taken in one of Ohio's 74 state parks, and portray children enjoying outdoor activities or learning about nature. Recent photos, as well as photos from the family album, will be accepted.
Winning photographs will be featured in a special 60th Anniversary issue of the Ohio State Parks magazine to be published in spring 2009, and on the official Ohio State Parks website, www.ohiostateparks.org .
For more information on recreational offerings and the calendar of state park events, see www.ohiostateparks. Reservations for overnight stays can be made on-line, and camping reservations can also be made by calling 1-866-644-6727.
To enter the photo contest, send a 5 x 7" color or black/white print to Ohio State Parks Photo Contest, 2045 Morse Rd, Bldg C-3, Columbus, OH 43229. Each photo must include the following information on the back: Entrant's name, address, daytime phone number, location/park depicted in the photo and date of photo. Captions are optional. Professional photographers should include a publication rights release.
Employees of Ohio State Parks and their families are not eligible to enter the photo contest. All photo entries and written submittals become the property of ODNR for use in publications and promotional materials. Compensation is not available.
Hunters will have more days to hunt with a gun
COLUMBUS, OH - Hunters are preparing for Ohio's upcoming fall wild turkey season, which runs Saturday, October 11- November 30.
New this year, wild turkeys may be hunted throughout the entire season with shotguns using shot, crossbows and longbows. Previously, the season had been split with an archery-only segment during the last portion of the season. Nine counties in northeast Ohio, including Cuyahoga, Lake, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Portage, Stark, Summit, and Wayne, have been added to the fall turkey season. This brings the number of open counties statewide to 46.
"Brood production was enhanced in parts of southern Ohio by this summer's emergence of 17-year cicadas," said Mike Reynolds, the division's wild turkey biologist. "Hunters should be able to locate flocks of turkeys feeding on abundant white oak acorns and beech nuts in mature forests." Reynolds estimates Ohio's statewide wild turkey flock now numbers more than 200,000 birds.
First fall wild turkey hunting season in Ohio was in 1996.
Fall wild turkey hunting hours are one-half hour before sunrise to sunset. The bag limit is one turkey of either sex per hunter per season. A fall turkey permit is required in addition to a current Ohio hunting license. All harvested turkeys must be taken to an official turkey check station by 8 p.m. the day of harvest.
Dogs may be used to assist in taking wild turkeys during the fall hunting season, but not during the spring season.
Hunters should be aware that the fall turkey season will partially overlap with the Early Muzzleloader Season deer hunt (October 20-25) on three state-owned areas: Wildcat Hollow and Salt Fork state wildlife areas, and Shawnee State Forest. Turkey hunting will not be allowed on these areas during those dates.
More than 17,000 hunters pursued wild turkeys in the state last fall, harvesting 1,216 birds. The f
COLUMBUS, OH - Ohio's youth hunters will again have several added opportunities to learn and practice their hunting skills this fall. The Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife offers several ways for families to hunt together and create lasting traditions in the state's outdoors.
WATERFOWL: Youngsters age 15 and younger wanting to pursue waterfowl may do so, statewide, on Saturday and Sunday, October 4-5.
SMALL GAME: Hunters age 17 and younger may hunt statewide for rabbit, pheasant and all other legal game in season during two designated weekends, October 25-26 and November 1-2. Quail also may be taken in 16 designated open counties.
Pheasant releases for young hunters will occur prior to these dates on the following state wildlife areas: Resthaven, Oxbow, Berlin, Killdeer Plains, Camp Belden, Grand River, Spencer, Wellington, Delaware, Dillon, Caesar Creek, Rush Run, Fallsville and Darke, as well as Charlemont Metropark in Lorain County.
WHITE-TAILED DEER: A youth deer-gun season will be open statewide, November 22- 23. Young hunters age 17 and
younger who are accompanied by a non-hunting adult may take one deer of either sex during this season, in accordance with existing bag and deer zone limits.
WILD TURKEY: It is not too early to be planning to participate in the spring youth wild turkey hunting for 2009. A statewide spring youth wild turkey season will be offered on Saturday and Sunday, April 18-19. This hunt is open to youths age 17 and younger.
CONTROLLED HUNTS: The Division of Wildlife also offers several controlled hunts for young hunters throughout the hunting season. Applications to participate in these hunts are accepted June 1 through July 31. Applications are available at the division's five district offices and on the division's web site, and may be completed by mail or online. There are controlled youth hunts for white-tailed deer, wild turkey and waterfowl.
To participate in the upcoming youth hunts, all young hunters must be accompanied by a non-hunting adult, and must abide by all regular hunting hours and bag limits. A valid 2008-09 youth hunting license, along with the appropriate permits, are required. For complete details on all of Ohio's youth hunting seasons, refer to 2008-2009 Ohio Hunting and Trapping Regulations booklet, call 1-800-WILDLIFE (1-800-945-3543) or go online to www.wildohio.com.
The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the GLSFC, its officers or staff.
Reproduction of any material by paid-up members of the GLSFC is encouraged but appropriate credit must be given.
Reproduction by others without written permission is prohibited.
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